The Best AHA + BHA Toners (Alpha & Beta Hydroxy Acid, Glycolic Acid): The Ultimate Guide & Review – Did you know that if you’re using products with active ingredients on it without prepping your skin beforehand, you may only be getting a fraction of its benefits?
This is especially true if you have an arsenal of serums or creams with active ingredients or other topical products in your routine.
AHA and BHA toners work as a booster so your more expensive products can be absorbed much more efficiently into your skin.
They can also help your skin build resistance and condition it to accept higher, more effective concentrations of products.
These toners can be the step in your routine that will maximize your skincare to its fullest potential.
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Table of Contents
- 1 What is AHA (Alpha Hydroxy Acid)?
- 2 What is BHA (Beta Hydroxy Acid)?
- 3 The Benefits of Alpha Hydroxy Acids & Beta Hydroxy Acids
- 4 The Benefits of Using AHA + BHA Toners
- 5 How to Incorporate AHA + BHA Toners in Your Skincare Routine
- 6 Buying Cheat Sheet:
- 7 Editor's Choice: The Best AHA + BHA Toners
- 7.1 HydroPeptide Balance & Brighten Pre-Treatment AHA Toner
- 7.2 Mila Moursi Skin Care pH Balancing AHA/BHA Toner
- 7.3 AHA! 100% Natural Skin Tonic
- 7.4 PCA SKIN Nutrient AHA Toner
- 7.5 Mario Badescu Glycolic Acid Toner
- 7.6 Tres Belle Organic Brightening Toner with AHA & Skin Superfood
- 7.7 Vivant Skin Care 9% Mandelic Acid 3-in-1 Toner
- 7.8 Boscia Resurfacing AHA Treatment Toner with Apple Cider Vinegar
- 7.9 Peter Thomas Roth 8% Glycolic Solutions Toner
- 7.10 Michael Todd Organic Lemon AHA + DMAE Toner
- 8 Product Comparison Chart: The Best AHA & BHA Toners
- 9 Alpha Hydroxy Acids and its Risks
- 10 Frequently Asked Questions
- 11 References:
What is AHA (Alpha Hydroxy Acid)?
AHA or Alpha Hydroxy Acids are hydrophilic, or water-soluble acids. This means they work well on the surface of the skin to exfoliate and hydrate.
With consistent use, this clears the skin of any build-up and keeps it healthy and young.
There are different types of alpha hydroxy acids. The more common ones seen in toners are: glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid and mandelic acid. These acids naturally occur in dairy and fruits.
What is BHA (Beta Hydroxy Acid)?
BHA or Beta Hydroxy Acids are primarily lipophilic, or oil-soluble. This means they work well with oily skin and inflammatory acne. They are used to decongest pores and sebum from the skin.
The most common type of BHA used is Salicylic Acid.
The Benefits of Alpha Hydroxy Acids & Beta Hydroxy Acids
Alpha and Beta hydroxy acids induce shedding of dead skin cells, also known as cell turnover or exfoliation. By doing so, they stimulate the appearance of new skin, resulting in a fresher and younger looks complexion. It is one of the most widely used anti-aging agents in cosmetic dermatology.
Other benefits of AHAs and BHAs include:
- helping diminish the appearance of fine lines and hyperpigmentation (acne spots)
- rejuvenates dull, lifeless skin
- smoothens out skin texture
- evens out skin tone
- combat mild acne, blackheads, whiteheads, and rosacea
- increases collagen
- maintain proper moisture levels in the skin
- increases the efficacy of other topical products by removing barriers to the skin on a cellular level
- unclog pores and deep-seated oils in the skin
The Benefits of Using AHA + BHA Toners
- AHA + BHA toners prepare your skin to accept active ingredients from your skincare products, like AHA serums. They lower your skin’s pH, which is an essential step in helping the rest of your topical products penetrate your skin at a much deeper and faster rate.
- Exfoliates dead skin cells that are blocking your pores as well sweep away any remaining residue that is interfering with your skin’s ability to fully absorb your products. If you use a cotton ball, this process is one of the gentlest ways to incorporate daily physical and chemical exfoliation.
- Increases your skin’s resistance to a higher concentration of acids and other active ingredients by giving your skin daily doses of hydroxy acids. This is especially useful if you’re just starting to incorporate peels into your routine.
- Can be used as your 2-week skin prep before doing any type of chemical exfoliation.
How to Incorporate AHA + BHA Toners in Your Skincare Routine
Below is a general skin care routine you can follow, applicable for all skin types. If you have several products that you layer, you can insert them between your serums and moisturizers.
One quick rule in layering products: apply them on from the thinnest to the thickest consistency. Make sure to also give them a few minutes to absorb. This technique will make sure that all your products are in full effect and work in synergy.
- Toners – You can use facial cottons to sweep off any excess dirt left by your cleanser. If you do a double cleanse or you’re confident with your cleansing routine, you can just gently tap the toner onto your skin to save product.
- Serums or other corrective products with active ingredients
- Moisturizers – Or products with thicker consistencies and/or are oil-based.
- Sunscreen (AM) or Night Cream (PM) – Sunscreen is crucial if you have exfoliators in your regimen. They help protect your skin from any photosensitivity that AHAs bring.
Buying Cheat Sheet:
- Best AHA + BHA Toners – Boscia Resurfacing Treatment Toner with Apple Cider Vinegar, Mila Moursi Skin Care pH Balancing Toner
- Best Glycolic Acid Toners – Peter Thomas Roth 8% Glycolic Solutions Toner, Mario Badescu Glycolic Acid Toner
- Best Mandelic Acid Toners – Vivant Skin Care 9% Mandelic Acid 3-in-1 Toner
- Best Exfoliating Toners – Boscia Resurfacing Treatment Toner with Apple Cider Vinegar, Vivant Skin Care 9% Mandelic Acid 3-in-1 Toner, Peter Thomas Roth 8% Glycolic Solutions Toner
- Best Lactic Acid Toners – HydroPeptide Balance & Brighten Pre-Treatment Toner, PCA SKIN Nutrient Toner
- Best AHA Toners for Dry & Dehydrated Skin – AHA! 100% Natural Skin Tonic, Tres Belle Organic Brightening Toner with AHA & Skin Superfood
The Best AHA + BHA Toners
We’ve chosen the best AHA & BHA toners based on formulation, our experiences, specifications, efficacy, value for money, and consumer reviews.
For best results, make sure to choose a product that is suited for your skin type and skin issues.
Best for: All skin types; Dull, Unbalanced, Lackluster skin; Discoloration
Innovative, clinically proven skincare through peptides and epigenetics (gene tailoring) is what gives the Hydropeptide brand its unique leading edge. They use the principles of epigenetics to control your skin cells (turn bad genes off and good genes on) to encourage healthier skin. Their in-house geneticists formulate results-driven, luxurious products that contain powerful gene signaling ingredients like peptides.
This lightly exfoliating tone is a great starter for your skincare routine. It helps balance the skin without over drying (which is can problem with most toners) and leaves your skin refreshed and radiant.
It encourages cell turnover to brighten and evens out any discolorations, as well as help reduce the appearance of fine lines. It smells very fresh with a light scent of orange.
- Lactic Acid, Hyaluronic Acid
- Collagen Supporting Peptides
- Wrinkle Relaxing Peptides
- Moisturizing Peptides
- Brightening Orange Stem Cell Extracts, Bearberry, and Vitamin C
- Licorice, Mulberry, Geranium, Green Tea, Chamomile
Vegan & Cruelty-free.
Free from: parabens, gluten, phthalates, or sulfates.
You can use it with a cotton pad as an extra step in removing excess makeup residue, or simply pat it in. If you keep it in a spray bottle, you can also use it a refreshing mist or to set makeup.
Best for: All skin types looking to brighten and tighten the dull, uneven skin tones.
Best for: Normal to Oily skin
From one of Hollywood’s in-demand skin specialists, Mila Moursi has elite clientele that boasts names like Jennifer Aniston and Courtney Cox. Her Skin Care Institute & Day Spa in LA is known for its array of nourishing and anti-aging full body treatments. Her label’s coveted French-made range in now made available online.
Beautiful, healthy skin is balanced skin. This alcohol-free toner balances your skin’s pH to keep it healthy and optimizes it for your skincare routine. It also reinforces other products by helping it work deeper and faster.
- Lactic Acid – the gentlest type of AHA, perfect for sensitive skin; derived from milk, it improves skin tone and helps give a radiant complexion.
- Salicylic Acid – a type of BHA that helps control oil production, skin texture, and clears congested pores
- Allantoin – plant extract that soothes sensitive skin and encourages cell renewal
- Glycerin – a humectant that boosts the skin’s moisture retention
- Mint Extract – helps balance the skin’s pH, minimizes excess sebum, and soothes skin irritation
Saturate two cotton pads, and sweep up from the décolleté to the face. Refer to the video for instructions. Follow with your serum and creams.
Cons: A high-end skincare investment that comes with a steep price tag.
Best for: Normal to Oily skin
Best for: All skin types especially Sensitive & Dry skin; As aftershave; Vegans
100% all natural and organic toner, with AHAs extracted from fruits that aren’t processed with pressure, heat, or additive chemicals.
- Grapefruit Seed Extract – antiviral, antifungal, antiseptic, and antibacterial; a natural preservative.
- A mix of Citrus Oils (lemon, grapefruit, orange, bergamot, neroli) – an intense dose of vitamin C, which helps protect and heal. It also has potent properties for brightening, detoxifying, and rejuvenating the skin.
- Organic Apple Cider Vinegar – contains malic acid, a type of AHA derived from apples. Aside from the usual benefits of alpha hydroxy acids, it also has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. Apple cider also helps balance your skin’s pH levels, helping regulate sebum production.
AHA benefits from the gentle formulation include smoother skin, visible reduction in fine lines, and an even complexion.
Gentle enough to use around sensitive areas like around the eyes and the neck. Also, an effective and soothing aftershave that helps get rid of irritation.
Suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and has a fresh citrus scent.
Con: As with any natural product, shelf life may be limited if not carefully stored. It’s best to be kept away from direct sunlight and in cool, dry storage. There may also be discoloration in the product in its mid-life.
Best for: All skin types especially sensitive skin; those looking for all natural organic, vegan products.
Best for: All skin types especially Dry & Dehydrated skin
Active Ingredients: Pumpkin enzyme based toner formulated with lactic acid, and aminoguanidine.
Personally, I am a massive fan of the PCA line as their formulations are always effective and can rival any number of high-end skincare.
- The nutritional benefits of fermented pumpkin include amino acids (nourishes skin), antioxidants, vitamin A (potent anti-aging, improves hydration, repairs skin) and vitamin C (brightening, anti-aging).
- Lactic acid is a type of AHA known for its moisturizing properties so it won’t dry out your skin. This is not an astringent, but a hydrating and skin conditioning toner. Lactic acid is tagged with the usual benefits of AHA as well: refines pores, smoothes skin texture, etc. This is perfect for dry and dehydrated skin.
- Aminoguanidine is an anti-aging ingredient that supports skin elasticity and suppleness.
This toner is fragrance-free, but there is a natural pumpkin smell coming off it which is quite interesting. Sweet smelling, reminiscent of autumn.
Cons: Avoid if you have extra sensitive skin as the active ingredients in this can be quite irritating.
It’s advertised as fragrance-free, but that refers to it not having synthetic fragrances and not literally. This product comes with the natural smell of sweet pumpkins (which is not all bad but you may prefer the literal version of fragrance-free.)
The most annoying thing for me personally though is that the bottle tends to leak, so heads up especially if you plan to travel with it.
Best for: All skin types especially dry skin and dehydrated skin, perfect for winter use, and those who are looking for a toner with an extra kick of skin vitamins & anti-aging ingredients
Best for: Combination to Dry skin
Mario Badescu is known for its powerful acne solutions and potent anti-aging treatments. For over 50 years, their star-studded New York clientele has come for the brand’s customized regimens for every skin type and concern.
This mild resurfacing toner is part of their best-selling line that rejuvenates and brightens the skin. Glycolic acid, Aloe Vera, and Grapefruit extract works in synergy to refine pores, even out skin tones, and help reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. It speeds up the skin’s cell renewal process to reveal radiant and youthful-looking skin.
- Glycolic Acid – refines pores and uneven skin texture, diminish the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines
- Aloe Vera – re-balances and soothes the skin
- Grapefruit extract – Refreshes and rejuvenates dull skin
Cons: Not recommended to be used in conjunction with sensitive skin, topical prescriptions, or with acne eruptions.
Best for: Combination to Dry skin.
Best for: All skin types especially Photodamaged & Dull skin; Vegans
Contains a knockout blend of organic extracts and five types of AHAs.
- Superberry extracts (blueberry, bilberry, pomegranate, cranberry) – a large dose of antioxidants to protect the skin from harmful free radicals (which causes rapid aging).
- A blend of all organic AHAs (Malic, Tartaric, Glycolic, Lactic, Citric) – combines all the benefits of different kinds of alpha hydroxy acids to deliver exfoliating, moisturizing, antibacterial, and brightening effects on the skin.
Cons: Though it may look like an all-powerful exfoliator with its blend of AHAs, the formulation is quite gentle. It’s not highly concentrated enough to quickly address hard-hitting skin issues like dark pigmentation and acne. This product is best for skin maintenance instead of as a corrector.
Best for: All skin types, photodamaged skin, those looking for an all natural AHA toner with anti-aging vitamins, those looking for a gentle toner for skin maintenance
Best for: Oily & Acne-prone skin (Severe acne), Hyperpigmentation, Melasma, Dark skin tones, Combination skin
This is a potent AHA product for those already acclimated to using acids in their skincare. This 3-in-1 toner promotes exfoliation, refines skin texture, and lightens discoloration. It’s a treatment booster for acne, hyperpigmentation, and aging skin. One of the best exfoliating toners for combination/oily skin or dark skin tones we’ve tried.
- Mandelic Acid – naturally derived from the extract of bitter almonds. Mandelic acid is one of the few AHAs that has antibacterial properties used to treat acne. It is also an excellent alternative to those that have sensitivities to glycolic acid, as well as those that have dark skin tones and irregular hyperpigmentation from salicylic acids.
- Witch Hazel – natural plant-derived astringent that helps clear and tighten the look of pores while eliminating excess facial oil
This toner mainly serves as a booster for severe acne treatments, as well as melasma and any fine lines.
You should expect a mild exfoliating and astringent effect. The aim is to help fade discoloration and blemishes while smoothing out the skin’s tone and texture.
Quick tip: During the warmer seasons, leave in the fridge for a cooling effect. If it’s also a tad too strong, use once every other day until you build up resistance to twice a day.
Cons: A potent formula that can cause dramatic peeling to skin that’s not used to acids. It’s also way too drying for sensitive skin. You can try the lower 3% formula but personally, it’s the 9% solution that made the difference. Another option is to build up a tolerance to acids. You can try by starting with their Mandelic Acid 3-in-1 Exfoliating Cleanser (with beads, for extra exfoliation) or Mandelic Acid 3-in-1 Wash (without beads, gentler).
Best for: Acne-prone skin, Melasma, Oily and combination skin, Dark skin tones; acne spots or post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, Sensitivity to glycolic acid, skin already acclimated to AHAs
Best for: All skin types including Sensitive skin
Boscia is known is known for their botanical science plant-to-bottle formulas, made for sensitive skin.
Formulated with 20% Acid Complex, this resurfacing toner invigorates and transforms your skin with potent alpha and beta hydroxy acids (AHA & BHA). Together with a boost of Apple Cider Vinegar, it effectively exfoliates dead skin cells, minimizes the appearance of pores, tones skin, softens the look of wrinkles, and brightens dull skin. Boscia’s signature botanical blend of Jojoba Leaf and Willow Herb nourishes the skin for daily use.
- Glycolic Acid – one of the most powerful AHAs, easily penetrates the skin to reveal smoother, brighter, younger-looking skin
- Salicylic Acid – unclogs pores and dissolves dead skin to purify the skin, reduces breakouts and blemishes
- Apple Cider Vinegar – has AHAs and Vitamin C to help stimulate the skin’s natural ability to product collagen, similar to the skin’s pH and balances the skin
- Jojoba – a powerful antioxidant that protects skin from free-radical damage, nourishes and hydrates the skin
- Willow Herb – Calms inflammation and reduces irritation and visible redness, shown to neutralize acne-causing bacteria
Free from: Preservatives, artificial fragrance, colors, gluten, harmful irritants or chemicals.
Best for: All skin types including Sensitive skin
Best for: Acne-prone, Oily & Combination skin; Hyperpigmentation, Dry patches
This product contains the highest amount of concentrated AHA in this list. The formulation is quite strong for sensitive skin, at 8% strength. The addition of soothing ingredients like aloe vera and chamomile extracts, however, helps to manage any potential irritations.
One of the best glycolic acid toners we’ve tried.
- 8% Glycolic Acid (AHA) – easiest type of AHA to penetrate the skin, the high concentration makes this formulation a potent and effective exfoliator
- Aloe Vera, Allantoin, and Chamomile Extract – helps hydrate and soothe skin irritations
- Sodium PCA – helps lightly and naturally hydrate skin
- Witch Hazel – natural plant-derived toner helps to clear and tighten the look of pores while eliminating excess facial oil
The texture is very watery, which makes it easily absorbed by the skin. This type of consistency is perfect for oily and combination skin. If you use a cotton ball, there will be some excess product left so it may seem wasteful. However, the bottle is large and even with regular use, can last for as long as 6 months.
Very good in helping clear and prevent acne. Though not marketed primarily as such, reviews from acne-prone users have been very positive.
The high amount of acids can give you the full benefits of AHAs: improved skin texture, fades hyperpigmentation, smoothens fine lines, exfoliates dull skin, evens out skin tone, improved hydration, and elasticity. If you have moderate skin issues, this toner may carry enough AHA to address your skin problems.
Cons: Strong formulation, not ideal for those who are new to acids or have sensitive skin. If you have staple acids in your routine, using this on top of those might be too much so tread carefully and see what works for you.
If you have sensitive skin, it’s best to start with a lower percentage toner and work your way up to this. (Higher concentrations are usually more effective, but it’s crucial that your skin has built tolerance for acids first to be able to use it properly.)
Best for: Acne-prone skin, Oily & combination skin; acne spots or post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, dry patches; those with moderate skin issues looking for an all-in-one AHA product.
Best for: Normal, Combination, Oily, and Acne-prone Skin
The Michael Todd lines are made with certified organic ingredients and natural extracts. Combined with select actives, they help promote skin clarity, balance, and radiance. Their products also smell incredibly good, with its subtle scent coming from the botanical extracts.
This clarifying toner is formulated to clear away any residual impurities left by your face wash. It enhances freshly cleaned pores with botanical extracts, fruit nutrients, and AHAs to help balance your skin.
- Glycolic, Lactic, and Malic Acids (Alpha Hydroxy Acids) – helps exfoliate the skin to improve rough and uneven textured skin, brightens complexion, Improves the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and pore size
- DMAE (Dimethylaminoethanol), Acai Extract – Antioxidant rich ingredient that improves the look of skin firmness
- Organic Orange & Lemon Extracts – Improves skin tone, smoothness, and vitality
- Black Willow Bark – helps balance the skin, improve uneven skin tone and texture, reduces the appearance of large pores, removes excess oil from the skin’s surface
- Sugar Cane and Maple Sugar Extract – promotes skin exfoliation and radiance
- Organic Aloe Vera Leaf Juice – one of nature’s most beneficial ingredients, used for its soothing and nourishing properties
Formulated without: Parabens, Phthalates, Sulfates, Artificial Dyes, Synthetic Fragrance, Triclosan, Mineral Oil.
Best for: Normal, Combination, Oily, and Acne-prone Skin
Product Comparison Chart: The Best AHA & BHA Toners
|Brand / Product Name:||Product Image:||Jump to Review:||AHA + BHA + Other Acids Included:||Added Benefits:||Best for (Skin Type & Condition):|
|HydroPeptide Balance & Brighten Pre-Treatment Toner||Read Review||Lactic Acid, Hyaluronic Acid||Triple action peptides; Brightening Orange Stem Cell Extracts, Bearberry, & Vitamin C; Licorice, Mulberry, Geranium, Green Tea, Chamomile. Vegan & Cruelty-free.||All skin types; Dull, Unbalanced, Lackluster skin; Discoloration|
|Mila Moursi Skin Care pH Balancing Toner||Read Review||Lactic Acid, Salicylic Acid||AHA + BHA, Allantoin, Glycerin, Mint Extract to balance skin tone, texture, and radiance||Normal to Oily skin|
|AHA! 100% Natural Skin Tonic||Read Review||Malic acid||100% all natural & organic. A mix of citrus oils (intense vitamin C).||All skin types especially Sensitive & Dry skin; As aftershave; Vegan|
|PCA SKIN Nutrient Toner||Read Review||Pumpkin enzyme, Lactic acid||Amino acids, Aminoguanidine, Vitamin A, & Vitamin C (anti-aging, brightening, hydrating)||All skin types especially Dry & Dehydrated skin|
|Mario Badescu Glycolic Acid Toner||Read Review||Glycolic Acid||Aloe Vera, Grapefruit extract to re-balance, refine, and rejuvenate||Combination to Dry skin|
|Tres Belle Organic Brightening Toner with AHA & Skin Superfood||Read Review||Malic, Tartaric, Glycolic, Lactic, & Citric Acid||Organic AHAs, Superberry extracts (antioxidants, anti-aging),||All skin types especially Photodamaged and Dull skin; Vegan|
|Vivant Skin Care 9% Mandelic Acid 3-in-1 Toner||Read Review||Mandelic Acid||Mandelic acid has unique antibacterial properties for severe acne. For dark skin tones prone to hyperpigmentation. Witch Hazel (pore minimizing, sebum control).||Oily & Acne-prone skin (Severe acne), Hyperpigmentation, Melasma, Dark skin tones, Combination skin|
|Boscia Resurfacing Treatment Toner with Apple Cider Vinegar||Read Review||Glycolic Acid, Salicylic Acid||Apple Cider Vinegar, Jojoba, Willow Herb||All skin types including Sensitive skin|
|Peter Thomas Roth 8% Glycolic Solutions Toner||Read Review||Glycolic Acid||Aloe Vera, Allantoin, & Chamomile Extract (soothing, anti-inflammatory). Sodium PCA (hydration). Witch Hazel (pore minimizing, sebum control).||Acne-prone, Oily & Combination skin; Hyperpigmentation, Dry patches|
|Michael Todd Organic Lemon AHA + DMAE Toner||Read Review||Glycolic, Lactic, & Malic Acids||DMAE, Organic Orange & Lemon Extracts, Black Willow Bark, Acai Extract, Sugar Cane and Maple Sugar Extract, Organic Aloe Vera Leaf Juice||Normal, Combination, Oily, and Acne-prone Skin|
Alpha Hydroxy Acids and its Risks
If you have sensitive skin or use an AHA toner that may be too high in strength, you may experience redness.
In general though, this is very safe. You do need to remember to always weak sunscreen as the peeling (invisible as it may seem) can cause sensitivities to the sun.
The higher the concentration of the acid and the lower the pH (measure of acidity) of the product, the more effective it will be. However, the strength of the formulation is also related to its ability to cause skin irritations. One way to minimize this is by raising your skin’s tolerance to acids and lowering your skin’s pH levels through AHA toners. Once the skin is conditioned enough, you can deliver higher concentrations of acids in the form of serums or chemical peels for more dramatic benefits.
Frequently Asked Questions
Once or twice a week to start.
If you feel like your skin has built up tolerance, you can use it every other day.
If you’re going to use it during the day, follow up with a sunscreen. This will protect your skin against any discoloration.
If you’re putting it on at night, use it immediately after washing. You can use a cotton ball to wipe off excess dirt, or pour it on your hand and tap it to your face.
This entirely depends on your skin condition and what issue you’re wanting to address.
Skin texture issues can see improvements within the period of cell turnover, ie. a few weeks or so.
Issues like sun damage and hyperpigmentation though can take months.
That said, consistent use can yield visible improvement in the appearance of the skin.
One of the strengths of this low-percentage acids is it ability to bring gradual skin improvement without visible peeling. You can continue with your professional and social commitments during the course of your use.
You use it immediately after cleansing your skin. The toner helps your skin prep for the rest of your skincare routine.
You can use a cotton ball to sweep it over your face, or pour it on your hand and massage or tap it on your face.
- Alpha Hydroxy Acids | All Natural Skin Care Products by Nonie of Beverly Hills. (2020).
- Beauty Tools and Skin Care Products – Michael Todd Beauty. (2020).
- boscia | preservative-free skincare for sensitive skin. (2020).
- Garg, V. K., Sinha, S., & Sarkar, R. (2009). Glycolic acid peels versus salicylic–mandelic acid peels in active acne vulgaris and post‐acne scarring and hyperpigmentation: a comparative study. Dermatologic Surgery, 35(1), 59-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2008.34383.x
- HydroPeptide Official Site | Luxury Anti-Aging Epigenetic Skincare. (2020).
- Jartarkar, S. R., Gangadhar, B., Mallikarjun, M., & Manjunath, P. (2017). A randomized, single-blind, active controlled study to compare the efficacy of salicylic acid and mandelic acid chemical peel in the treatment of mild to moderately severe acne vulgaris. Clinical Dermatology Review, 1(1), 15. doi:10.4103/2542-551X.196946
- Kornhauser, A. (2010). Applications of hydroxy acids: classification, mechanisms, and photoactivity. Clinical, Cosmetic And Investigational Dermatology, 135. doi: 10.2147/ccid.s9042 https://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S9042
- Kornhauser, A., Coelho, S. G., & Hearing, V. J. (2012). Effects of cosmetic formulations containing hydroxyacids on sun-exposed skin: Current applications and future developments. Dermatology research and practice, 2012. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jdermsci.2009.03.011
- ario Badescu. (2020).
- Michalun, N. and Michalun, M. (2001). Milady’s skin care and cosmetic ingredients dictionary. 1st ed. Australia: Milady Thomson Learning.
- Mila Moursi Advanced Skin Care.
- Mizon Beauty Door. (2020).
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- Home – Peter Thomas Roth Clinical Skin Care. (2020).
- Vivant Skin Care. (2020).
- VORARAT, S., AROMDEE, C. and PODOKMAI, Y. (2002). Determination of Alpha Hydroxy Acids in Fruits by Capillary Electrophoresis. Analytical Sciences, 18(8), pp.893-896.